Monday, January 15, 2018

Réunions de Coordination et validation de données des ISDC ASC d’ABO

12 – 18 Decembre, 2017 Par James Achanyi-Fontem, Coordinateur, ISDC ABO MBONJO
Point abordés pendant la réunion L’an 2017 du 12 décembre se tenue a Mbonjo dans le district de sante d’ABO une réunion de coordination trimestrielle de la Task Force communautaire sur les ISDC . C’est a 08h30 que le CBS représentant du Chef de district d’ABOouvre la séance avec le mot du bienvenue. Il demande aux participants composes des ASC, CAS, Representant de la chefferie de Mbonjo a suivre la lecture des Termes de référence de la réunion, les modalités pratiques, l’objectif générale de la réunion de la taskforce. Le Task Force vise d’assure la bonne coordination et le suivi, de la mise en œuvre des ISDC de manière harmonisé et complète au niveau communautaire en vue de l’amélioration locale de l’efficacité et la qualité des interventions sous directives communautaire. L’objectif, spécifique était mise en jeu pour guide les participants sur les attentes. Les données doivent être collectes a juste titre et que le chef de l’aire a continu avec la lecture des objectifs de la séance. Nous avons discuté sur les points phare de la réunion. Toul au file de cette seance, nous avons discute sur le problème que rencontre les ASC et mémé le chef de l’aire au quotidien. Le problème de gestion des médicament se pose avant validation des rapports des ASC. Le Coordonateur de l’OSCD Cameroon Link a presente les différent stratégies misent en place pour ameliorer les performances des ASC et CAS avec l’appui du Chef de village. Le travaille dans l’aire de sante de Mbonjo doit etre améliorer, il a ajout p-our un mieux resultat.. C’est a 17 heurs que le CBS a cloture la séance apres la validation des donnees des ASC.ferme la secoue pour tous en remerciant les participants. Aire de Santé Mangamba
Rapport de la réunion de coordination de task force pour la validation des données des ASC. -Présentation du terme de Référence de la réunion -Présentation des nouvelles orientations -Présentation des problèmes rencontrés -Suggestion des solutions pour l’amélioration des performances -Validation des rapports des ASC de Mangamba Mot de clôture et photo de famille La réunion débute a 08h30 avec le mot de bienvenue du coordination/superviseur du projet a ABO. L’ouverture est suivie de la présentation générale des orientations de l’ISDC pour 2018 avec la participation des chef de villagesa. Il ya eu lecture des termes de référence et correspondance sur la motivation envoyé par le comptable du Project. Le réunion de coordination régional est annoncé pour le 21 et 22 Decembre. 2017 a la delegation de sante publique pour le littoral a Douala-Bonandjo. Dans la liste des problèmes evoques se trouve le non- respect des dates de dépôt de rapports, le faibles quantité des intraits, le manque des certaines génériques de médicaments solliciter dans les communautés. Les participants ont apprécies la motivation des chefs des aire et inclusion des chefs de village comme membre du Task Force de ISDC. Ils vont facilité le plaidoyer dans les communautés.Les membres ont sollicites que le transport soit paye pour l’achement des intrants du District a l’aire de Sante. Réunion de Coordination du Task Force de SOUZA
Présentation des nouveaux ASC -Remplissage des fiches de présences -Nouvelles orientation sur les actiivites de ISDC -présentation des problèmes de l’Aire des Sante de Souza -Recherche des Solutions Validation des raqpports et revue de la carttographie des ACS Suggestion sur l’implication de Mme Bodi Michelle qui gere les medicaments. Le Task Force suggere qu’elle soit appui avec le frais de transport pour la collecte des medicament au niveau de la delegation de la sante a Douala. La quantite doit etre revue en hause. Conclusion La réunion débute a 8h avec le mot de bienvenu du Coordinateur d’OSCD Cameroon Link, M. James Achanyi Fontem, suivie de la présentation général des ASC et en particulier les nouveaux ASC qui sont venur a la Grant famille d’ISDC D’ABO..P_resentation des participants, nouveaux et anciens et a la suite de cette présentation le coordinateur nous présent les nouvelles orientation qui implique les chefs de village dans le programme .ainsi que le nouveau registre comme un autre outil de travail. On afini par la validation des rapporst des ASC pour les mois d’Octobre Novembre 2017., La vérification des zones de couverture par les ASC etaqient revuers avec satisfaction de participants. Comme problème évoqué, il y a manque de certain générique sollicité par les populations,l’insuffisance des quantité distribues, et le problème de transport par la gestionnaire des medcaments dans le district de sante d’ABO pour renouveler le stock. La personne qui achemine les médicaments de Douala a l’aire de sante sollicte une motivation pour le transp[ort. Comme solution l a été trace la cartographie des zones de couverture des ASC, les recensements des matériaux de projet à collecter par les nouveaux ASC, la signatures de contractés de nouveaux ASC du programme en fin d’ ânnée 2017. Il y a eu echange pendant la session des questions/ reponses avant la validation de rapports par le cTask Force. La reunion a pris fin a 16h 30min suivie d’une photo de famille.

Sunday, July 9, 2017

Cameroon Gets First Enterprise Breastfeeding Room

By James Achanyi-Fontem, camlinknews Email:camlink99@gmail.com
The Administrator General of Nestle for Central Africa region, Thomas CASO, on the 16th June 2017 inaugurated the first enterprise breastfeeding room in Cameroon. The official ceremony was attended by the Littoral Regional Delegate for Public Health, Dr.YAMBA BEYAS Martin, his colleague of the delegation of women and the family, directors of the company and a host of other dignitaries. According to information gathered during the ceremony, Nestle has inaugurated over 400 breastfeeding rooms around the world and the one in Cameroon is the fourth in the Central and West Africa Region. Thomas CASO told the audience that since the invention of baby food in 1866 by Henri Nestle, the enterprise has never failed in its mission of regularly improving on the wellbeing, quality of life and contribution for a better future of populations around the world. He added that the company has an ambition of contributing to the lives of individuals and families through the promotion and protection of breastfeeding by encouraging good nutrition of babies during the first 1000 days. It is for this reason that the company started the initiative of creating enterprise breastfeeding rooms for its employees, as an employer that is favourable to the family by creating an environment for breastfeeding mothers in its enterprise. This initiative falls within the company’s parental policy which aims at supporting employees to offer optimal nutrition opportunities to their babies during the first 1000 days. This also reaffirms its support to WHO/UNICEF recommendation for promotion of exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for all babies before the introduction of complimentary foods and continuing breastfeeding up to 24 months.
The second speaker at the occasion was was the president of Cameroon Mid-wives Association, who lauded the initiative and called on other enterprises to copy the good example. This initiative is not only life-saving, but also cost-effective as an opportunity for alleviation of poverty because breastfeeding has no cost attached to it. Breastmilk is ready at any time for the baby and it should be given on demand.
The littoral regional delegate for women and the family in Cameroon added her voice, saying Nestle BF Rom Initiative is supported by the government. It was made known that since 2013 when the Cameroon Society of paediatricians put exclusive breastfeeding rate in Cameroon at 28%, more progress has been made as the World Breastfeeding Trends Initiative conducted in Cameroon in December 2016 puts the rate at 34%. These indicators show that Cameroon is making laudable progress in the area of infant and young child feeding promotion.
The occasion was animated with traditional rhythm and poem delivered in the Douala national language of Cameroon. This demonstrates the fact that local populations are better reached through the languages that they understand better.

Frist1000 Day of Baby

By James Achanyi-Fontem Email:camlink99@gmail.com Courtesy of Nutrition Institute of Africa
The Administrator General of Nestle for Central Africa region, Thomas CASO, on the 16th June 2017 inaugurated the first enterprise breastfeeding room in Cameroon. The official ceremony was attended by the Littoral Regional Delegate for Public Health, Dr.YAMBA BEYAS Martin, his colleague of the delegation of women and the family, directors of the company and a host of other dignitaries. According to information gathered during the ceremony, Nestle has inaugurated over 400 breastfeeding rooms around the world and the one in Cameroon is the fourth in the Central and West Africa Region. The first 1000 days was central point of discussion at the event and Cameroon Link uses this opportunity to highlight what 1000 Days is all about. First 1000 days explains the beginning of baby's birth and growth from the mother's womb up to 24 months of life. This issue was treated during the inauguration of the first breastfeeding room in Cameroon on the 16th June 2017 by the Administrator General of Nestle Central Africa Region, Thomas CASO. Companies are invited to copy Nestlé’s example. Nestle has 400 breastfeeding rooms in enterprise around the world. Click this link to watch video - https://youtu.be/xHHzaQfIF4w President of Cameroon Mid-wives Association praises Nestle Initiatives The President of Cameroon Mid-wives Association has praised Nestle Initiative of creating first enterprise breastfeeding room. He called on other enterprises to copy the good example and improve on the wellbeing of employees and their families. According to information gathered during the ceremony, Nestle has inaugurated over 400 breastfeeding rooms around the world and this was the fourth in the Central and West Africa Region. This initiative falls within the company’s parental policy which aims at supporting employees to offer optimal nutrition opportunities to their babies during the first 1000 days. This also reaffirms its support to WHO/UNICEF recommendation for promotion of exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for all babies before the introduction of complimentary foods up to 24 months. Cameroon is the fourth country to benefit from the initiative in West and Central Africa Region. Click the following videos to watch more - https://youtu.be/nEls7irXjMc https://youtu.be/sT9Vs8Otv-s
What can you do in 1,000 Days? https://youtu.be/4TBiikPprzM First 1000 days explains the beginning of baby's birth and growth from the mother's womb up to 24 months of life. This issue was treated during the inauguration of the first breastfeeding room in Cameroon on the 16th June 2017. Companies are invited to copy Nestle's example. Nestle has 400 breastfeeding rooms in enterprise around the world. The 1,000 Days Window of Opportunity First 1000 days explains the beginning of baby's birth and growth from the mother's womb up to 24 months of life. This issue was treated during the inauguration of the first breastfeeding room in Cameroon on the 16th June 2017. Companies are invited to copy Nestlé’s example. Nestle has 400 breastfeeding rooms in enterprise around the world. Click on this link to watch more - https://youtu.be/ugBd7NAOzg4 Building baby diet during pregnancy – Part 1 This episode treats the issue on how to build a baby's diet during pregnancy. The film is produced by the Wellcome Trust and shared here by Cameroon Link, a partner of WABA and IBFAN Africa. Click on this link to watch more - https://youtu.be/VB5L1gILMOc Building baby diet during pregnancy – Part 2 This episode treats the issue on how to build a baby's diet during pregnancy. The film is produced by the Wellcome Trust and shared here by Cameroon Link, a partner of WABA and IBFAN Africa. Click on this link to watch more - https://youtu.be/YIpSV27LKNc Pregnancy Diet For Mom This is the message to pass on to expectant mothers during counselling ahead of delivery of her baby. It has been brought to you by Cameroon Link and the Mother and Child Health Care Association in Grand Hangar, Douala-Bonaberi. Share it with your friends and relatives. Click on this link to watch more -https://youtu.be/tik6xkqf3IE What foods to eat while pregnant Diet nutrition during pregnancy This is the message to pass on to expectant mothers during counselling ahead of delivery of her baby. It has been brought to you by Cameroon Link and the Mother and Child Health Care Association in Grand Hangar, Douala-Bonaberi. Share this link with your friends and relatives. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62bAknJ1vxQ&feature=youtu.be Weight Gain during Pregnancy - Part 1 Pregnant women gain a lot of weight during pregnancy. This should be controlled before and after bedding of the baby. It is easier to gain weight than to cut down when the weight is already there. Listen to this episode and share with friends and relatives. https://youtu.be/dBTz0HhbKJw The BNP Breastfeeding Video Documentary - Part 2 Pregnant women gain a lot of weight during pregnancy. This should be controlled before and after bedding of the baby. It is easier to gain weight than to cut down when the weight is already there. Listen to this episode and share with friends and relatives. Watch this video brought to you by Cameroon Link - https://youtu.be/ldMyUa8S36g
Prenatal and Postnatal Infant Care and Feeding Educational Video This is a prenatal and postnatal Infant Care and Feeding Educational Video brought to you by Cameroon Link for sharing with friends and relatives- https://youtu.be/7Kbj86o3WMo Hillary Clinton Addresses Participants at 1,000 Days to Scale Up Nutrition for Mothers and Children This episode is on the message given by Hillary Clinton as she addressed participants at 1,000 Days to Scale Up Nutrition for Mothers and Child. Cameroon Link and Mother and Child Health Association in Douala-Bonaberi are also engaged in similar activities weekly. it is another way of promoting wellbeing in families. Watch Hilary Clinton and share with friends and relatives - https://youtu.be/AEgaEW4n4B0 Secretary of State Clinton on 1,000 Days This is a video about the Former US Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton addressing Americans on the 1000 Days. Cameroon Link has brought this to you for sharing... https://youtu.be/I19Fm_S9_1M

FACTORS INFLUENCING PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN IYCF

By James Achanyi-Fontem, Email:camlink99@gmail.com, Courtesy of Nutrition Institute of Africa
Different theories on behaviour are useful in predicting or explaining behaviours. The Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological system’s model and the Theory of planned behaviour have often been used to explain human behaviour. In order to understand human behaviour, there is need to understand the context in which the behaviour occurs, and the intertwined relationship between an individual and their surrounding environment. (McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler & Glanz, 1988; Stokols, 1996). Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological systems model defines spheres of influence from individual factors to society and environment, affecting health behaviour (Bronfenbrenner & Uriel, 1994). Although in the model different levels are separate in order to illustrate how they individually contribute to every behaviour, the levels overlap and influence each other. Figure 1 provides a graphical representation of Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological systems model as applied to parental involvement in IYCF. The four categories of levels emerging from this model are the macro system, exo system, micro system and the individual level. The microsystem includes interactions experienced by the individual in this case the parents with friends, grandmothers and other relations that have an influence of the involvement of parents in child feeding. The exo system includes the influence of the health systems, the media and finances, while the macro system includes the environment in which the parents live in, policies and the culture that the parents follow. Some of the factors that influence parental involvement in IYFC based on the ecological model will be discussed. These factors include the parent’s knowledge and attitudes, their education status, age, economic status and other cultural norms.
Parental knowledge and attitudes in infant and young child feeding According to the Theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1985; Ajzen, 1991), antecedents of intention and actual behaviour are subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and attitudes towards that behaviour, which in turn are based on underlying beliefs on advantages and disadvantages of the behaviour. Identifying the parent’s attitudes and their beliefs could help to improve IYCF practices. The Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour model by Kemm & Close (1995) adds that knowledge affects ones attitudes which leads to change of behaviour. Behavioural intention is a direct predictor of behaviour while one’s attitude to the behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behaviour control are predictors of intention. However, attitude can also directly influence behaviour. Knowledge affects the attitudes and perceived behaviour control (Vaarno, 2016).
Parental knowledge of infant and young child feeding practices The knowledge that parents and caregivers have on the recommended IYCF practices had an influence on their feeding practices (behaviour). As such, improving parental knowledge on appropriate IYCF practices may have a beneficial effect on the actual feeding practices. In some studies, prenatally given breastfeeding information for mothers has been positively associated with breastfeeding confidence (Chezem, Friesen & Boettcher, 2003; Kronborg, Maimburg & Væth, 2012), initiation of breastfeeding (Stuebe & Bonuck, 2011), and breastfeeding duration (Chezem et al., 2003). Women’s knowledge and self-efficacy on breastfeeding have also been associated with high breastfeeding rates (Khoury, Mitra, Hinton, Carothers & Sheil, 2002). Maternal knowledge appears to have a beneficial influence to initiation of complementary foods (Semahegn, Tesfaye & Bogale, 2014) and quality of complementary foods (Fahmida, Kolopaking, Santika, Sriani, Umar, Htet & Ferguson, 2015; Negash, Belachew, Henry, Kebebu, Abegaz & Whiting, 2014). However, it has been observed that mothers have higher levels of knowledge about the recommendations related to breastfeeding in comparison to their knowledge of complementary feeding (Thuita, 2011). Fathers have an important role of supporting mothers in IYCF (Tohotoa, Maycock, Hauck, Howat, Burns & Binns, 2009), and their knowledge about breastfeeding has been identified as one of the main attributes related to their support to breastfeeding (Sherriff, Hall & Panton, 2014). However, it has been observed that fathers’ knowledge of and involvement in maternal and child nutrition and health issues is limited compared to that of mothers (Aubel, 2012). This could be because the fathers are not extensively involved in child feeding and therefore they do not accumulate significant knowledge. Wolfberg et al. (1994) in the United States of America found that breastfeeding initiation was significantly increased when expectant fathers attended a two hour antenatal class of infant care and breastfeeding compared to only one class covering infant care. The father’s perception of the IYCF practices have also been linked to mother’s breastfeeding decisions. It has been observed that in families where the fathers perceived breastfeeding as a good practice, mothers were more likely to initiate breastfeeding than families where fathers did not favour breastfeeding (Arora, McJunkin, Wehrer & Kuhn, 2000; Freed & Fraley, 1993; Giugliani, Caiaffa, Vogelhut, Witter & Perman, 1994). Other studies suggest that since fathers often have misperceptions of and limited knowledge on IYCF, they would benefit from interventions to enhance their knowledge (Brown & Davies, 2014; Sherriff et al., 2014; Taşpınar, Çoban, Küçük & Şirin, 2013). Providing education to fathers has been found to influence the actual feeding practices. For instance, in Brazil it was observed that fathers’ better knowledge increased changes of infant being exclusively breastfed at the end of first and third month (Susin, Giugliani, Kummer, Maciel, Simon & Da Silveira, 1999). Similar benefits of paternal education were also reported in a Turkish study (Özlüses & Çelebioglu, 2014). The beliefs and attitudes that parents have toward breastfeeding and complementary feeding also have an influence on the actual feeding practices. It is even suggested in other studies that attitudes may be even better predictors of feeding intention and behaviour than knowledge (Losch, Dungy, Russell & Dusdieker, 1995; Marrone, Vogeltanz-Holm & Holm, 2008).
Attitudes and beliefs Benefits of breastfeeding seem to be well known, but positive attitudes towards breastfeeding are needed for successful outcomes in infant feeding. Positive attitudes towards breastfeeding have been associated with the intention to breastfeed, longer duration of both exclusive and any breastfeeding (Mitchell-Box, Braun, Hurwitz & Hayes, 2013), and the introduction of complementary foods (Newby, Brodribb, Ware & Davies, 2014). In a study by Mossman et al. (2008) on mothers’ breastfeeding attitudes on breastfeeding initiation and duration it was found that mothers with high prenatal attitude on breastfeeding were significantly more likely to initiate breastfeeding than those with poor attitudes. In addition, adolescent mothers who had more positive attitudes toward breastfeeding also had higher prenatal breastfeeding self-efficacy scores (Mossman, Heaman, Dennis & Morris, 2008). This was also observed in an Australian study, where mothers who did not initiate breastfeeding had significantly lower levels of breastfeeding confidence than those who initiated breastfeeding and continued to six months postpartum (Turner & Papinczak, 2000). In another study, women with lower breastfeeding confidence were three times more likely to prematurely discontinue breastfeeding when compared to more confident women (O'Campo, Faden, Gielen & Wang, 1992). In addition to the mother’s attitudes, father’s attitudes on IYCF also have an influence on the feeding practices. Rempel and Rempel (2011) found that fathers’ prenatal beliefs influenced the strength of mothers’ breastfeeding intention and predicted breastfeeding behaviour even over and above the mothers’ intention. In a study by Giugliani et al. (1994) mothers’ perception of fathers’ attitudes was the main reason associated with breastfeeding shortly after birth. It has been observed that mothers who perceived their partner having negative attitudes regarding breastfeeding planned to formula-feed (Freed & Fraley, 1993; Freed, Fraley & Schanler, 1993; Shaker, Scott & Reid, 2004) and choose formula-feeding as the feeding method (Arora et al.,2000; Wolfberg, Michels, Shields, O'Campo, Bronner & Bienstock, 2004). Other studies in both high- and low-income settings have also observed that a father’s positive beliefs and knowledge about breastfeeding are associated with increased maternal intentions to breastfeed as well as successful breastfeeding initiation and increased breastfeeding duration (Anon.; Kessler, Gielen, Diener-West & Paige, 1995; Pontes, Osório & Alexandrino, 2009; Rempel & Rempel, 2004). However, not all the studies have found positive attitudes to be associated with initiation of breastfeeding (Holbrook et al., 2013) or exclusive breastfeeding duration (Yu et al., 2015). Negative attitudes are also associated with child feeding, more specifically negative attitudes towards breastfeeding in public have been found to be associated with earlier discontinuation of breastfeeding in many European countries (Scott et al., 2015).
Education Education is one of the factors that have an influence on parental involvement in IYCF. Studies have shown that younger parents and caregivers with high levels of education have a better understanding of the importance of child feeding and therefore are more likely to be involved in IYCF than parents with low levels of education (Hasnain, Majrooh & Anjum, 2013; Katepa-Bwalya et al., 2015). This is also evidenced from the results of a study conducted in Zambia that observed that mothers’ compliance with recommended IYCF practices increased with the mothers’ level of education. In the Zambian study, 48% of children whose mothers attended secondary school were fed according to the recommended IYCF practices, compared with 32% of children whose mothers had no education (Katepa-Bwalya et al., 2015). Other studies done in Malawi also found that education improved adherence to IYCF recommendations and reduced childhood morbidity (Vaahtera et al., 2001; Ziyane, 1999). High mother’s education has been related most clearly with positive feeding behaviours. In a Finnish nationwide survey where mother’s level of education was linked to both exclusive breastfeeding and total breastfeeding, it was found that 42 % of mothers with a high education were exclusively breastfeeding at four months and 88% were breastfeeding at six months, whereas among mothers with the lowest education level only 18% of the mothers were exclusively breastfeeding at four months, and 33% were breastfeeding at six months respectively (Uusitalo et al., 2012). The father’s level of education also has an influence in IYCF. Results from a study in Nepal found that fathers/ males who had higher levels of education showed greater involvement in encouraging their spouses to breastfeed their children (Bhatta, 2013). Another study in Equatorial Guinea had similar findings where younger married men with secondary education were significantly more willing to encourage their wives to exclusively breastfeed than older men with little education (Jimoh, 2004). For complementary feeding, a low maternal educational level has been related to early introduction of solid foods (Andren Aronsson et al., 2013& Betoko et al., 2013), delayed (beyond six months) introduction of complementary foods (Senarath et al. 2012) and a low quality of complementary foods (Betoko et al., 2013).
Age The age of the parents also has an influence on how they are involved in IYCF. For breastfeeding, older mothers have been observed to have more positive attitudes and to initiate and maintain breastfeeding longer than younger mothers (Mossman et al., 2008). Other studies also found maternal age as being positively associated with appropriate timing and quality of complementary foods (Andren Aronsson et al., 2013& Betoko et al., 2013). The father’s age has also been observed to have an influence on feeding practices. A study by Huus et al. (2008) found that short term (< 4 months) exclusive breastfeeding was less common if the father was more than 37 years old than when the father was younger. Economic status
The parents’ economic status also has an influence on their involvement in IYCF. Traditionally financial provision is considered to be one of the primary contributions of fathers (Kenney, 2008). This may lead to poor involvement from low income fathers since they may not have a lot of money to provide for the child’s feeding needs (Gavin, Black, Minor, Abel, Papas, & Bentley, 2002). On the other hand, fathers who provide steady household income for their families may feel that their most important role has been fulfilled through their work (Raub, 2013) and this may discourage them from being more directly involved. Even though recommended IYCF practices, especially breastfeeding, are generally cost saving, it has been observed that infants in low socio-economic families breastfeed for shorter periods and introduce solid foods earlier than infants in families having better socioeconomic status (Lauer et al., 2004; Mukuria et al., 2012). A qualitative study that was conducted in Kenya found that a mother’s food insecurity and hunger led to her experiencing milk insufficiency and anxiety about infant hunger. The mothers’ had the perception that their intake of food was not sufficient for successful breastfeeding which resulted in the mothers introducing solid food before the child was six months (Webb-Girard et al., 2012). Economic status may also influence the quality of foods provided for the children. A study in four South Asian countries found that the prevalence of children having a diversified diet (receiving foods from four or more food groups) was the lowest in the poorest families (Senarath et al., 2012). Foods that contain plenty of protein and micronutrients are typically expensive, which makes low income families unable to purchase them for their children (Darmon & Drewnowski, 2015). Parents may also have knowledge on the foods needed for complementary feeding, but may fail to practise when they do not have adequate financial resources to purchase the appropriate food (FAO, 2015).
Cultural norms Culture determines the parents’ involvement in the feeding of infant and young children. Cultural norms dictate that the roles of younger women and men are gender specific, as are the roles played by senior women (grandmothers) and senior men (grandfathers). Male family members are primarily responsible for providing the financial resources for basic household activities, including food while women are responsible for managing the household and managing the daily tasks of raising children which includes dealing with nutrition and health issues (Aubel, 2012). This division of roles may sometimes hinder men to be directly involved in IYCF. A study in Kenya observed that the pressure to embrace this cultural definition of masculinity hindered most men in actively participating in child care (Thuita, 2011). Culture can positively influence parental involvement in IYCF practices when the cultural patterns are supportive of the appropriate feeding practices. For example in rural Thailand, breastfeeding on demand, strong family support, and traditional practices that encouraged close contact between mother and her new born enabled mothers to breastfeed even when they had no previous experience (Amatayakul, Wongsawasdi, Mangklabruks, Tansuhaj, Ruckphaopunt, Chiowanich, Woolridge, Drewett & Baum, 1999). However, cultural practices can sometimes negatively influence parental involvement in IYCF. In Malawi some cultural norms and beliefs in relation to taboos were found to negatively influence IYCF practices. For example, eggs were perceived to be harmful for young children, while herbal tonics and thin porridges were believed to offer protective qualities (FAO, 2014; Vaahtera et al., 2001). In other Sub-Saharan African countries mothers are not allowed to be involved in sexual activities during the breastfeeding period because of the belief that intercourse would spoil the breast milk (Arts, Geelhoed, De Schacht, Prosser, Alons & Pedro, 2010; Mbekenga, Lugina, Christensson & Olsson, 2011). Such a taboo may increase pressure on mothers to terminate breastfeeding earlier than they would otherwise do. In some cultures, breastfeeding in public is considered a taboo due to exposing of breasts and this may hinder women from exclusively breastfeeding their children. For instance, a study in Malaysia found that women had positive attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding and were willing to practise exclusive breastfeeding, however breastfeeding in public was considered a taboo, which resulted in most mothers being unable to exclusively breastfeed (Leong, 2009).
Conclusion Both mothers and fathers play important roles in the feeding of infants and young children. As such involving both parents (mother and fathers) in IYCF is important to ensure optimal IYCF practices. Adequate nutrition knowledge, positive attitudes and perceptions of parents on IYCF are also important in improving their IYCF practices. There are several factors that influence the parents’ involvement in IYCF, including the parents’ level of education, age, and spouse perceptions of the appropriate IYCF practices as well as socio-economic and cultural factors.

Monday, May 29, 2017

Yes to breastfeeding rights, No to all violence!

By Camlinknews Courtesy of WABA
“Breastfeeding is a key element in cultivating concern and respect for each other and the world we share”. Did you know that obstetric violence can also negatively affect breastfeeding practices? Current socio-medical practices often deny women their rights to proper antenatal care, labour and delivery practices, and standard postpartum care, which results in low breastfeeding rates. Pregnancy, giving birth, and breastfeeding are all part of the sexual and reproductive cycle and thus integral to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR). In recognising the importance of SRHR on the International Day of Action for Women’s Health, the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) and La Leche League International (LLLI) hope to engage change-makers at all levels to call for a global action to improve the rights of women and children by acknowledging breastfeeding to be fundamental in attaining the highest standards of health for mothers and children.
Breastfeeding is a key intervention that has the potential to improve survival, health, and well-being of the population both in the short and long term. Therefore, women need to be given the information and support to breastfeed successfully to enable them to make informed choices and act upon them. Information on the benefits of breastfeeding, as well as the risks of artificial feeding, should be made available to women and their families so that they can make the best possible choices. Unnecessary separation of mother and baby, and medical procedures (such as drugs taken during delivery that impede breastfeeding) should be avoided. Clinical and community breastfeeding resources for support and problem-solving should be made available to all new mothers. The White Ribbon Alliance states that Respectful Maternity Care also leads to successful breastfeeding. The respect and dignity afforded to a woman during pregnancy and childbirth is critical in ensuring that she feels supported during the first hours and days after giving birth when, the breastfeeding relationship is being established. When a woman gives birth in a respectful, supportive environment, where her rights are protected and her dignity is preserved, she is empowered to take care of her baby and breastfeed(1). Consistent support and skilled assistance for the mother-baby dyad throughout the continuum of care empower women to have a more satisfying and effective breastfeeding experience(2). The support should be present both within healthcare systems and in the communities. Today’s global economic and labour conditions are changing rapidly, and have led to improvements in women’s participation in the economy. However, the benefits of paid labour do not reach all women and families equally. If women are to breastfeed as recommended, society bears the responsibility to support them. Specifically, this social responsibility means that protection, respect, facilitation, and fulfilment of these rights require universal recognition of the importance of breastfeeding as a social function. This will be achieved by extending access to paid maternity and parental leave, paid breastfeeding breaks, and family-friendly work environments. Breastfeeding is enhanced by having consistent support from the baby’s father or the partner. Research shows that fathers not only have the capacity for care-giving, but that children also benefit directly from fathers’ involvement. Promundo’s MenCare campaign report states that involved and non-violent fatherhood allows girls and women to achieve their full potential and also makes men and families happier and healthier(3). By creating opportunities for equitable sharing of parental and domestic responsibilities, new pathways emerge for building gender equality at home, workplace, and society at large.
On this International Day of Action for Women’s Health, we call upon all conscientious citizens to work together to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding. Collaboration toward this critically important goal will help ensure women’s sexual and reproductive health right to control their bodies, their sexualities, and their lives, free from coercion, discrimination and violence(4). http://whiteribbonalliance.org/opinions/respectful-maternity-care-can-lead-to-successful-breastfeeding/ http://waba.org.my/warm-chain/ https://sowf.men-care.org/ http://www.may28.org/

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

How to Improve Blood Circulation Naturally (Research Based)

By Jenny Hills - Food & Nutrition, Health
Having good blood circulation is essential to staying healthy. Improving your blood circulation helps your blood flow to all your vital organs, supplying them with needed oxygen and nutrients. You may need to improve your blood circulation if you frequently have cold feet and toes, swelling in your feet, pins and needles in your legs or arms, or get fatigued easily. Poor blood circulation could also be a cause of hair loss, dizziness, or headaches. There are a number of ways to improve blood flow in your body. For example, many foods help to stimulate circulation, keep the blood healthy, and prevent problems with your arteries. You can also boost blood circulation by exercising regularly, managing stress properly, and keeping yourself well hydrated. In this article, you will learn about the many lifestyle choices you can make to help improve blood circulation. Most of these natural remedies to improve blood flow are very easy to use and will boost your general health. What is Blood Circulation and Why It’s So Important Blood circulation in your body is regulated by your heart which is located to the left of your breastbone. According to Dr. James Beckerman on WebMD, your heart beats around 100,000 times a day and pumps about 2,000 gallons of blood. Blood flows through a series of arteries that feed your body’s tissues. Blood also removes waste products and promotes good health.1 Good circulation, therefore, is necessary to maintain good blood pressure, stabilize body core temperature, maintain pH levels, and keep all cells in your body healthy. Poor blood circulation can negatively affect every organ in your body. Usually, your will notice the effects of poor blood flow in your fingers and toes. However, poor circulation can cause dizziness, breathlessness, high blood pressure, chest pains, and varicose veins. What Affects Blood Circulation? There are several factors that can affect blood circulation. For example, The Ochsner Journal reports that aging and high blood pressure can cause “coronary insufficiency” – poor blood flow through the veins. Very often, aging and high blood pressure go hand-in-hand. As we age, our arteries lose some of their elasticity and become narrower. This causes an increase in blood pressure as the heart works harder to circulate blood through the body. Other factors that can affect blood circulation are being overweight, diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol levels, and lack of physical exercise. These factors cause various cardiovascular problems and can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure. Therefore, it’s important to always be aware of the need to improve blood circulation in your body. This is one of the best ways to prevent heart problems as you grow older. How to Improve Blood Flow in Your Body? Here are some tips and suggestions that can make a big improvement to your blood flow and improve blood circulation: 1. Exercise Physical exercise will improve your circulation and make you feel better in general. Any physical activity that gets your heart pumping more blood is good for you. The American Heart Association recommends getting at least 150 minutes of moderate exercise every week. They say that one of the biggest benefits of regular exercise is improved blood circulation which reduces your risk of heart disease.2 This will also help you control your weight, reduce cholesterol, and manage stress better – all factors that help to boost blood circulation even more. If you have had a sedentary lifestyle, it is recommended to become more active by walking more. Other activities to get yourself moving and improve blood flow are jogging, swimming, climbing stairs, or playing sports.3 2. Stretch A very simple way to improve blood circulation every day is to do stretching exercises. Regular stretching throughout the day is especially important if you have to sit at a desk all day for your work. Getting up from your seat and walking around can help you avoid the negative consequences of sitting too much. A study from 2016 on the connection between stretching and blood flow found that it benefits your cardiovascular system. The researchers found that stretching increased blood flow to tissues and organs in the body.4 3. Massage Massage can help reduce muscle inflammation and tension by increasing blood flow in the body. Inflammation can cause various serious health issues and massaging can help to release the buildup of toxins and increase blood circulation. Massaging your legs is also a great and easy way to improve leg circulation and get blood moving to your feet and toes. The journal Medical Science Monitor reported that massage boosts blood flow and can help to alleviate lower back pain. The effect of rubbing the skin increased skin temperature and enhanced blood flow to the massaged area.5 You can massage with essential oils diluted in a carrier oil. There are many great essential oils that improve blood circulation. For example, the journal Phytomedicine reported that rosemary oil improves blood circulation and alleviates pain.6 Also, a study from 2014 found that peppermint oil can help to boost blood flow to the scalp and promote hair growth naturally.7 If you are interested in learning more about essential oils you can find useful information in my e-book Magical Aromatherapy. This book will help you to discover the power of essential oils and the most effective ways to use them. 4. Enjoy a healthy diet Enjoying a healthy diet will not just boost your immune system, but it will also improve your vascular health. A healthy diet should consist of plenty of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats (found in fish, nuts, seeds, olive oil, and avocados). The British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published a study on the effect of green leafy vegetables on blood circulation. The researchers found that nitrates in vegetables help to improve blood flow and boost plasma nitrate levels.8 There are also foods that help to prevent clogged arteries. Garlic, oily fish, berries, spinach, green tea, and oats all have properties that help improve vascular health and increase blood flow. 5. Drink plenty of water One of the negative effects of dehydration is a reduction in blood flow. Drinking plenty of water is a great and cheap way to improve blood circulation naturally. The Journal of Physiology reported that a lack of water affects blood flow. Researchers found that during exercising, blood flow to muscles decreases significantly if a person is dehydrated.9 This can lead to headaches, muscles aches, and fatigue. Most experts recommend drinking 8-12 glasses of water a day. However, if you regularly exercise or live in a hot climate, you should increase your water intake to keep yourself properly hydrated. You should also watch your alcohol and caffeine intake as consuming too much can leave you dehydrated. 6. Reduce caffeine and alcohol intake To help keep your blood circulation operating normally, you should reduce the amount of caffeine or alcohol you consume. Although moderate amounts of caffeine can help to boost heart health, and even contribute to liver health, too much caffeine can have a negative effect on your circulation. Researchers have found that too much caffeine can affect cerebral blood flow. They reported in the journal Human Brain Mapping that regularly drinking excessive amounts of caffeine has a negative effect on blood supply to the brain. Too much caffeine also raises blood pressure and increases heart rate.10 Similar results were found when looking at the link between alcohol and blood circulation. A study from 2008 found that one glass of red wine can have a positive effect on the blood vessels and heart. However, although blood flow continued to increase after two drinks, the blood vessels can’t expand and this causes high blood pressure and an increased risk of developing heart disease.11 7. Drink green tea To help improve blood circulation and boost your heart health, drink green tea regularly. Green tea contains powerful antioxidants that protect your vascular system. The therapeutic properties of green tea also help to dilate your blood vessels, thus boosting blood circulation. Regularly drinking green tea has been found to have a preventative effect on cardiac problems developing. The journal Current Medicinal Chemistry reported that green tea has a beneficial effect on the blood. For example, the study found that consuming green tea regularly helped to increase blood flow in chronic smokers. Regularly consuming green tea also helped to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease.12 For best results, drink 2-3 cups of green tea daily to help keep your blood circulation healthy. 8. Limit salt intake To help blood flow through the body and increase circulation, you should limit the amount of salt in your diet. We know that too much salt is linked to high blood pressure and heart disease, however, some studies have found that salt also directly affects blood flow. Dr. Jennifer Keogh on WebMD says that reducing salt in the diet has a positive effect on blood vessels. This helps to regulate blood flow properly and improves the health of blood vessels.13 Doctors recommend avoiding processed foods or looking for pre-prepared foods that are labeled “very low sodium.” You should also be careful of prepared sauces, bouillon cubes, and soy sauce as these generally contain high levels of salt. 9. Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba is an herb that has been shown to boost circulation and keep your blood flowing through your veins. Ginkgo biloba also has an antioxidant effect on your cardiovascular system and brain function. In my e-book The Herbal Remedies Guide, I’ve already mentioned the ginkgo leaf as a remedy for several ailments. It is a versatile herb that strengthens memory and improves circulation. The University of Maryland reports that the way ginkgo biloba improves blood circulation is by opening up the blood vessels. This can help to prevent or reverse the effects of poor circulation in your legs.14 Other studies into the benefits of gingko biloba have found that it increases blood flow to the brain and can help treat the symptoms of dementia.15 10. Hydrotherapy Using hot water on your body can help to improve circulation, increase blood flow, and release tense muscles. Taking a warm bath with some essential oils helps you relax and allows oxygen to flow better through your body, thus benefiting your general health. Dr. Jerrold Petrofsky from Loma Linda University found that a warm bath of 30 minutes helps to improve blood circulation and reduce blood pressure.16 Other studies have found that sauna steam at 60°C for 15 minutes also helps to increase blood flow and improves cardiac function.17 While in a warm bath or sauna, you can use a body scrub to stimulate circulation. Try to inhale the steam which will help open your nasal passages and relieve congestion. This lets you breathe more easily which is another way to improve circulation naturally. 11. Use hot and cold treatment You can also use contrasting hot and cold treatments to help improve blood circulation. Hot and cold treatment for circulation is also called contrast hydrotherapy. You can use hot and cold contrast treatments to improve blood flow to your legs or arms. The journal Physical Therapy reported that contrast baths can help to stimulate blood flow. The study found that blood circulation was improved when patients immersed their limb for 3 minutes in a 40°C hot bath for 3 minutes then in 18°C water for 1 minute, followed by 40°C bath for 10 minutes.18 12. Elevate your legs If you have problems with poor blood circulation in your legs, you should keep them elevated as much as possible to improve blood flow. You should try to improve circulation in your legs if you have achiness, burning, or discomfort in your legs after walking, cramps at night, or tingling in your feet. The UC David Vascular Center recommends elevating your legs to instantly relieve pain and swelling from tired legs. You should keep your legs above the heart 3-4 times a day for 15 minutes at a time. If you have to sit for long periods of time and you can’t lie down, you should bend your legs several times during the day to increase blood circulation to your feet and toes.19 Elevating your legs as recommended above also helps to prevent deep vein thrombosis. 13. Manage stress levels Learning how to manage mental or emotional stress can have a positive effect on your blood circulation. Too much stress can play havoc with your cardiovascular system and can cause chest pains. The British Heart Journal found that blood flow is reduced when people are undergoing stress. This is because stress causes the blood vessels to constrict and reduce circulation.20 The University of Maryland reported that laughing helps to reduce stress and increase blood flow through the body.21 Apart from watching a funny movie to bring your stress levels down and boost blood circulation, there are many other natural ways to manage stress effectively. 14. Quit smoking Improving your vascular health and increasing blood circulation is one reason to quit smoking for good. Smoking damages your heart and also causes a buildup of plaque in your arteries which leads to poor circulation. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute warns that even second-hand smoke can be detrimental to your heart and cause vascular problems. Doctors recommend avoiding any kind of cigarette or pipe smoke to reduce the risk of dying from heart disease.22 15. Eat foods that stimulate blood flow You can also add foods to your diet that are known to have a positive effect on blood circulation. Here are some of the best foods that stimulate blood flow: Ginger. Ginger helps to stimulate circulation. The European Journal of Experimental Biology reported that ginger has a beneficial effect on the heart and helps to thin the blood. The researchers stated that “ginger stimulates blood circulation.”23 Dark chocolate. The antioxidant properties of dark chocolate may help to give your circulation a boost. The Journal of the American Heart Association said that dark chocolate helps blood vessels dilate and it improves the symptoms of peripheral artery disease (reduced blood flow due to a buildup of artery plaque).24 Garlic. Garlic helps to cleanse the blood and is a powerful antibiotic that has benefits for your heart. One study from 2004 found that regularly consuming garlic helps to increase blood flow to cells.25 Cayenne pepper. Capsaicin is the compound that gives cayenne pepper and chilies their spicy kick. The medicinal properties of capsaicin can be used to stimulate blood circulation. The British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology reported that patches containing capsaicin can help to increase blood flow to the skin to help relieve pain.26 16. Deep breathing Deep breathing has many health benefits such as improving the flow of blood and lymph fluid, improving lung function, stimulating relaxation and creating an overall sense of well being. A study published in the Austrian Journal of Phisiotherapy found that ankle exercise combined with deep breathing improved blood flow velocity in the femoral vein.27 The femoral vein is located in the upper thigh and pelvic region and is one of the larger vessels in the venous system.

Saturday, December 3, 2016

WORKING FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN CWAR

By James Achanyi- Fontem, camlink99@gmail.com
The issue of AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT focused on agriculture landscape in sub-Saharan Africa, rural Community and development, local sourcing, benefits and challenges with the role of government, private sectors and civil society. These issues were well rooted in the presentation made by Dr. Dorothy A. Effa(PhD) who is the Director in charge of Policy Planning Monitoring and Evaluation at the Ghanaian Ministry of Food and Agriculture. Common characteristics of Agriculture Landscape in Sub Saharan Africa, Dorothy A. Effa(PhD) said, shows that agriculture employs more than half of the total labour force according to a report the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 2012. Smallholder farms constitute approximately 80% of all farms in sub Saharan Africa and employ about 175 million people directly farming-less than 2 hectares according to AGRA report in 2014. AGRICULTURE and RURAL DEVELOPMENT is mostly rain fed with joint and extended family farms, while livestock remains a key asset for the poorest, particularly in arid and semi-arid settings. On agriculture contribution to GDP, it is on the average 15% of total GDP,3 % in Botswana and South Africa and more than 50% in Chad for example. It is noted that the high contribution of the agricultural sector to GDP underlines the limited diversification of most African economies. Agriculture production and productivity in Sub Saharan Africa remains significantly lower than the global average. Agricultural growth has been underpinned by area expansion and African governments have increased their investment in agriculture and are involving the private sector. With this, the structure of agriculture production in sub Saharan Africa has radically changed in the last two decades and traditional farming systems are inevitably changing from polycultures to monocultures as many technical and institutional factors drive these changes.
The Challenges of Agric. Production include low yields, inadequate market information, unavailability of inputs on a timely basis or in the quantity required. There is also the lack of credit, risk management and price formation mechanisms. Seasonality of agricultural input requirements, spatial dispersion of farmers, poor transport infrastructure from farm to the marketing, institutional capacity for research and extension is weak as the weak farmers’ associations. To face these challenges, the different countries have to positive agricultural policies within the current global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Since the 2003 Maputo Declaration, less than 20% of the countries have achieved their commitment. The Malabo Declaration of 2014 came to accelerate agricultural growth with the pledged to end hunger in Africa by 2025. In order for the Central and West Africa sub regions to achieve the SDGs, agriculture and rural development must be prioritized. According to the UN definition, rural development is a process of change, by which the efforts of the people themselves are united, those of government authorities to improve their economic, social and cultural conditions of communities in to the life of the nation and to enable them to contribute fully to national programs are a reality. Rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social life of rural poor and it is a process, which aims at improving the wellbeing and self-realization of people living outside the urbanized areas through collective process. This builds on infrastructures, public service and communication to improve on the health, education and living conditions of the population.in order to generate employment through farming, storage and economic activities. Scientifically, it is believed that local sourcing can reduce poverty and improve food safety and security, where companies are offering their suppliers long-term contracts, competitive prices, and access to information, as well as investing in improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries Outsourcing relationships need to consider the economic, environmental and social effects in order to be sustainable. Company/contractor agreements must be reviewed in order to ensure that social responsibility aspects are appropriately managed. and rural-urban migration on the ascendancy, local sourcing can be used as a way to address high unemployment rate as well as generate total economic growth.
Nestle sourced 70% of raw materials locally from the region in 2015 and has plans to increase. Sourcing of raw materials sh0uld comply with responsible Sourcing guideline (RSG) criteria, with traceability and transparency throughout the supply chains. The challenges facing the sub region however include inability to supply quantity and quality, build the capacity and invest in research. The national governments are called upon to put in place the public infrastructure necessary for the efficient operation of the private sector, enacting and enforcing rules and regulations that create safe and predictable environment for private investors, establishing a regulatory role in land tenure, ensuring through land registration and enforceable contracts that land ownership is secure, establishing viable financing opportunities for agricultural enterprises and good governance and transparent public administration, macroeconomic discipline and stability, and political stability. The national governments should provide favourable incentive framework which provides farmers and processors with good incentives to adopt new and sustainable technologies and diversify production into higher value crops. Through policy and institutional reforms that encourage and support private investments in agricultural value chains, the governments can support mechanisms and processes designed to create and strengthen farmer organizations, create mechanism for media engagement to ensure appropriate messaging and as a means of awareness creation and promotion of best practices. The role of private sector Investments should be to ensure superior service delivery to the end consumer with the objective of maximizing service at an affordable price. Financial institutions (FIs) should play a key role in the agri-business sector, primarily on the credit front due to the priority sector lending requirement. They should be an integral component of the agri-system and finance should be available at each and every stage of the value chain in order to make the agri-system sustainable The role of private sector investments should include promotion of grading, branding, packaging, as well as Investing in research and development strategies, investing in smallholder agriculture -models that maximize benefits to smallholder farmers. Civil Society Organisations (CSO) considered as non-state actors have four vital functions which include planning, implementation, reform and accountability. CSO planning provides ideas, evidence and expertise, thereby participating in dialogue/consultations to determine priorities. This can be done through advocacy at all levels starting from district assembly planning sessions and using community radio story design strategies. CSOs should be considered as service providers extending best practices , supporting training and advocacy They should be involved in accountability, holding all partners accountable and promoting mutual accountability by setting indicators. It is understood that CSO constituencies have legitimate and accountable representation and resources should made available to support their operations.
Civil society should be allowed to access to platforms for ensuring planning and accountability at all levels and also within their organisations, variable capacity of all actors and therefore the need to build capacity of members. It is expected that all CSOs evolve from the grass roots to regional and national levels. This would facilitate having an apex for all the organisations. They should build more synergies among themselves, be more proactive, engaging and impactful. The above issues have been recognized at the regional level, and it is for this reason that the non-state actors guide for CAADP implementation was developed. In conclusion, we can say there is urgent need to address the production gap and enhance the adaptive capacity of Africa's agricultural landscapes, considering the rapidly growing population and changing climate. We should guarding against the expansion and encroachment of farm land by protecting smallholders against the impacts of climate change, and improving regional trade for increased agricultural productivity, through enhancing infrastructure, technologies. Business skills uplifted will create an enabling environment in the CWAR. On the other hand, agricultural and rural development in developing countries must be founded on higher productivity of small-scale farmers. A more efficient access to land, water, technology, financial resources and other institutions that support poor farmers is fundamental. Improvement of transport and communication infrastructure, storage facilities, crop processing technologies and marketing solutions are needed to face the new market environment. It is important to have a clear understanding of where public investment needs to be made in support of the private sector in agriculture and agro-processing. The rural environment is continuously changing, the development mode of thinking. This is also changing rural development policies which need systematic adaptations. Since we all know the problems, this is the time to stop talking and act for achieving SDGs by 2030.